Degrees Of Freedom Statistics
Degrees of freedom statistics : Definition of first degree
Degrees Of Freedom Statistics
- In statistics, the number of degrees of freedom is the number of values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to vary.
degrees of freedom statistics
degrees of freedom statistics – Six Degree
CHICAGO – Ivory Jackson had Alzheimer’s, but that wasn’t what killed him. At 77, he was smashed in the face with a clock radio as he lay in his nursing home bed.
Jackson’s roommate – a mentally ill man nearly 30 years younger – was arrested and charged with the killing. Police found him sitting next to the nurse’s station, blood on his hands, clothes and shoes. Inside their room, the ceiling was spattered with blood.
"Why didn’t they do what they needed to do to protect my dad?" wondered Jackson’s stepson, Russell Smith.
Over the past several years, nursing homes have become dumping grounds for young and middle-age people with mental illness, according to Associated Press interviews and an analysis of data from all 50 states. And that has proved a prescription for violence, as Jackson’s case and others across the country illustrate.
Younger, stronger residents with schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder are living beside frail senior citizens, and sometimes taking their rage out on them.
"Sadly, we’re seeing the tragic results of the failure of federal and state governments to provide appropriate treatment and housing for those with mental illnesses and to provide a safe environment for the frail elderly," said Janet Wells, director of public policy for the National Citizens’ Coalition for Nursing Home Reform.
Numbers obtained through the Freedom of Information Act and prepared exclusively for the AP by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services show nearly 125,000 young and middle-aged adults with serious mental illness lived in U.S. nursing homes last year.
That was a 41 percent increase from 2002, when nursing homes housed nearly 89,000 mentally ill people ages 22 to 64. Most states saw increases, with Utah, Nevada, Missouri, Alabama and Texas showing the steepest climbs.
Younger mentally ill people now make up more than 9 percent of the nation’s nearly 1.4 million nursing home residents, up from 6 percent in 2002.
Several forces are behind the trend, among them: the closing of state mental institutions and a shortage of hospital psychiatric beds. Also, nursing homes have beds to fill because today’s elderly are healthier than the generation before them and are more independent and more likely to stay in their homes.
No government agency keeps count of killings or serious assaults committed by the mentally ill against the elderly in nursing homes. But a number of tragic cases have occurred:
– In 2003, a 23-year-old woman in Connecticut was charged with starting a fire that killed 16 fellow patients at her Hartford nursing home. A court guardian said Leslie Andino suffered from multiple sclerosis, dementia and depression. She was found incompetent to stand trial and committed to a mental institution.
– In 2006, 77-year-old Norbert Konwin died at a South Toledo, Ohio, nursing home 10 days after authorities said his 62-year-old roommate beat him with a bathroom towel bar. Sharon John Hawkins was found incompetent to stand trial.
– In January, a 21-year-old man diagnosed with bipolar disorder with aggression was charged with raping a 69-year-old fellow patient at their nursing home in Elgin, near Chicago. A state review found that Christopher Shelton was admitted to the nursing home despite a history of violence and was left unsupervised even after he told staff he was sexually frustrated.
Jackson’s roommate was 50 and had a history of aggression and "altered mental status," according to the state nursing home inspector’s report. Solomon Owasanoye wandered the streets before he came to All Faith Pavilion, a Chicago nursing home, and he yelled, screamed and kicked doors after he got there.
On May 30, 2008, he allegedly picked up a clock radio, apparently while Jackson slept, and beat him into a coma. Exactly what set him off is unclear. Jackson died of his injuries less than a month later. Owasanoye pleaded not guilty to first-degree murder, and after a psychiatric review was ruled unfit to stand trial. He now lives in a state mental hospital.
All Faith Pavilion co-owner Brian Levinson said his staff is trained to deal with aggressive behavior, and he disputed state findings that Owasanoye had a history of aggression. The for-profit nursing home was fined $32,500 for failing to prevent the assault.
Under federal law, nursing homes are barred from admitting a mentally ill patient unless the state has determined that the person needs the high level of care a nursing home can provide. States are responsible for doing the screening. Also, federal law guarantees nursing home residents the right to be free from physical abuse.
Families have sued in hopes of forcing states to change their practices and pressuring nursing homes to prevent assaults. Advocates say many mentally ill people in nursing homes could live in apartments if they got help taking their medication and managing their lives.
The problem has its roots in the 1960s, when
Theresa Lovering Brown
1.5" x 5.5" x .25"
silver, copper, acrylic, paint, patina, stainless steel pin stem
The war in Afghanistan began October 7th, 2001 and the Iraq War began March 20th, 2003 both wars continue to this day. In the fall of 2004, a call for entry was sent out to artists to make an Anti War Medals piece for the Velvet da Vinci gallery in San Francisco, CA. The challenge inspired me since I firmly believe war does not help diplomacy between counties or people. I have been to Hiroshima, Japan to the Peace Memorial Museum and the Killing Fields and Genocide Museum in Cambodia in both cases as with the War in Iraq and Afghanistan I find the officials pushing the war forward repugnant.
As a child I was indirectly affected by the Vietnam War. Throughout the United States War on Vietnam my Mother worked on the Oakland Army base in which they shipped men to and received men from the Vietnam War. She remembered the body bags, thousands of them that came through from Travis Air Force Base to Oakland. At the time she didn’t talk about it much but she met with the families who lost service men and saw the impact the soldiers’ death had on their families. My Aunt’s best friend lost two of her sons in the Vietnam War, we had pictures of them. In the 60’s, at age 10 or 11 my dad drove onto Telegraph Avenue in Berkeley and we were surrounded by hundreds of anti-war protesters. At the time, it made a big impression on me. Then my oldest brother came of age, he applied to be in the military, my mom advised him when he met with recruiters to get in writing he would never go to Vietnam so he did and he was never sent to the war. I read Johnny got his gun, it made a big impression. This is the closest I came to any War. The 1st Gulf War came and went, again I had no real affiliation with the war, I knew nobody who went, I lost no family members; I was in graduate school focused on my degree. I was uninvolved.
From the very beginning of the US invasion into Afghanistan and Iraq, I was riveted to the news. Trying to make sense of what was happening listening to National Public Radio, the BBC and Amy Goodman. These media sources and research on the internet brought disturbing accounts of innocent people getting maimed and killed, troops and soldiers dying and becoming disfigured while all along big corporate news media conglomerates neglected to broadcast the deaths and casualties from Afghanistan and Iraq and many times the news was incorrect or the stories were twisted. Submerging myself into so much news was overwhelming and depressing. Feeling helpless and dismayed, I had to funnel my frustration and anger so I began my Anti-War series pieces. As the war continued, I realized I’m a maker, not a destroyer, and I needed to channel my energy and thoughts into a creative direction.
I made work that brought the war issue to the spotlight and could be seen in the public eye even though it was not a popular opinion. I wrote letters and called my representatives so my voice and opinion would be heard even when and if it was unpopular.
Smart Bombs and Friendly Fire are my Anti-War creations, an interpretation, which brings attention to the devastation and destruction “war toys” have on peoples’ lives. Smart Bombs were mis-targeted, hitting unintended targets, killing countless people destroying families and communities. Friendly Fire has killed and still kills or maims U.S. soldiers and allies. Both Anti-War pieces are too beautiful to portray the destruction and devastation conveying the disgusting picture I have heard about in Iraq and Afghanistan. I came to an understanding with the anti-war pieces I made, if the work had a destructive edge in the way war did or does, I would get depressed making the work and would have to abandon the work before I expressed what I wanted to say. I was hoping the beautiful representational components would draw the audience in to ask: What is the piece about? Between the aesthetics, the title and the words on the piece, the audience could get the meaning. Even after making the piece, doing research on smart bombs, I still don’t understand why a smart bomb could end up in the wrong place, killing innocent people. I came to a realization it’s the people behind the smart bomb who target the bomb and the same could be said for the friendly fire.
In the early years of the second Iraq war, a smart bomb tragically hit a wedding ceremony, killing 40 to 45 people. The United States public was told the wedding party was an anti-coalition group and this anti-coalition group was firing on coalition troops. Dismayed at the military response, I was left wondering: Is this how you bring and spread democracy and freedom into another country? This is what the Bush Administration has been telling us. This is not the democracy and freedom I want my country to be involved with. As I be
degrees of freedom statistics
“The Army’s top recruiter, already struggling to meet his quotas this year, said ….that 2006 would be even harder, and perhaps the toughest year for recruiting since the all-volunteer force began in 1973.”—The New York Times, May 13, 2005
So you’re walking out of school and parked at the gate is a new, bright red Ford Mustang with a hulk of a man in the front seat. He’s sporting a razor cut and wraparound shades. Before you can pass he’s out of the car and blocking your path. “Mind if I take a minute”—he has you by the arm now—”to tell you about the great life in today’s Army and why you should seriously think about signing up?”
The armed forces are having a tough time attracting new recruits lately, in no small part due to the mess in Iraq. Young people are getting wise to the many excellent reasons not to join the U.S. Military, and this handy book brings them all together, combining accessible writing with hard facts and devastating personal testimony. Contributors with firsthand experience point out the dangers facing soldiers, describe the tricks used by recruiters, and emphasize that there really are other options, even in a sluggish economy. It’s essential reading for anyone thinking of signing up.
Over 2,000 American soldiers have been killed in Iraq, and over 14,000 have been wounded.
• Nearly 100,000 civilians have been killed in Iraq as a result of the U.S. invasion.
• One in six soldiers returning from Iraq experiences mental health problems.
• Two-thirds of all recruits receive no college funding from the military, and only 15 percent graduate with a four-year degree.
• According to the VA, 90 percent of recent women veterans reported experiencing sexual harassment; a third were raped.